Deschiderea datelor din domeniul cultural în România: oportunități și riscuri

Fundația pentru o societate deschisă și Asociația MetruCub-resurse pentru cultură publică azi, 19 februarie, Cultura deschisă: context european și național, prima analiză din România despre date deschise în cultură.

Potrivit raportului, cultura deschisă, open culture (en) sau culture libre (fr), se traduce prin acces liber la materialul cultural digitizat al instituțiilor care dețin patrimoniu cultural și posibilitatea distribuirii și a reutilizării acestuia printr-o licență care nu impune limitări de copyright.

Atât ca terminologie, cât și ca filosofie a accesului deschis (tehnic și juridic) la materiale, cultura deschisă nu este recunoscută în documentele oficiale și promovată în România. Coordonatoarea studiului, Bianca Floarea, subliniază “Nu există încă o tradiție și o cultură a deschiderii, în accepțiunea definită în raport,și nici o cerere consistentă din partea publicului în această direcție. România are însă oportunitatea de a se alătura mișcării datelor deschise în cultură pentru că este membră a Uniunii Europene, urmează să implementeze o serie de directive comunitare relevante pentru cultura deschisă și are acces la resurse financiare programate pentru intervenții de digitizare, stocare, accesibilizare și eventual reutilizare a datelor culturale deschise (fondurile europene structurale și comunitare pentru perioada 2014-2020).“

Pe o scară a deschiderii datelor, o primă etapă este digitizarea și accesibilitatea online a materialului cultural, urmată de posibilitatea reutilizării operelor în scop comercial sau necomercial. Preocuparea României pentru digitizarea patrimoniului cultural a început odată cu obligația de a participa la Europeana, biblioteca digitală europeană, care cuprinde opere aparținând bibliotecilor, arhivelor și muzeelor din statele membre UE. Însă, conform Raportului 2011-2013 cu privire la stadiul implementării Recomandării CE din 2011, realizat de Institutul Național al Patrimoniului, citat în studiu, în periodada monitorizată, România a furnizat doar 7,66% din totalul materialelor digitizate pe care ar fi trebuit să le înscrie. Analiza arată că “transmiterea de piese digitizate către Europeana se realizează greu și pentru că nu există criterii clare și aprobate oficiale cu privire la ce înseamnă o capodoperă, pe ce criterii este desemnată. De asemenea, procedura tehnică de trimitere a pieselor către Europeana sau de modificare a unor date trimise este foarte lentă și învechită.“

Pentru actualul cadru de programare, Strategia națională în domeniul culturii și patrimoniului național pentru perioada 2014-2020 acoperă doar procesele de digitizare, dotare cu tehnologii, promovare, armonizare și formare a specialiștilor în domeniu. Strategia Națională privind Agenda Digitală pentru România, prevede totuși, alături de trecerea patrimoniului cultural în format digital, promovarea de conținut original digital, care ar putea fi considerată o oportunitate pentru reutilizarea operelor culturale.

În timp ce la nivel național identificăm cu greu politici care să favorizeze deschiderea datelor culturale, la nivel european, există modele de bună practică pe care raportul le evidențiază. Un exemplu este Rijkmuseum, Muzeul Național al Olandei, care oferă un spațiu virtual, unde vizitatorii își pot crea/curatoria propria expoziție și sunt încurajați să refolosească imaginile pentru diverse produse proprii – de la huse pentru telefoane mobile, la videoclipuri muzicale remixate. La numai trei luni de la deschiderea arhivei digitale, numărul vizitatorilor a crescut cu 34%, fiind create 32 000 de portofolii.

Beneficiile publicării deschise a materialelor culturale sunt recunoscute și de o serie de operatori culturali din România, intervievați în realizarea studiului. Printre acestea se numără posibilitatea de a îmbogăți metadatele (informațiile descriptive despre conținutul cultural) deținute de instituțiile de patrimoniu, în contextul cantităților mari de materiale și al personalului insuficient care să asigure structurarea și documentarea informațiilor. Un alt avantaj recunoscut este stimularea inovației, prin crearea de aplicații care promovează patrimoniul cultural și care, implicit, conduce la un număr mai mare de vizitatori, care dezvoltă noi practici de consum cultural.

De cealaltă parte, studiul scoate la iveală și riscurile identificate de profesioniștii din domeniu, care țin de denaturarea informațiilor distribuite, care, reutilizate, fără controlul instituției, pot ajunge chiar să decredibilizeze instituția furnizoare de conținut cultural. Un alt dezavantaj menționat în raport, se referă la eliminarea unor surse de venit provenite din vânzarea unor imagini sau a dreptului de folosire a metadatelor.

Deoarece datele deschise reprezintă o abordare nouă în domeniul culturii în România, raportul subliniază necesitatea dezbaterilor publice atât cu specialiști din domeniu, cât și cu formatori de opinie și cu publicul larg, beneficiar al accesului deschis, în vederea dezvoltării de strategii coerente, care să permită atât digitizarea, cât și deschiderea conținutului cultural.

 

Raportul Cultura deschisă: context european și național face parte seria Rapoartele societății deschise, o serie de cinci analize de politici, una generală pe tema datelor deschise și a guvernării electronice și patru specifice despre: guvernare deschisă, contracte public-private transparente, resurse educaționale deschise, bugete publice deschise și date deschise în cultură.

Rapoartele societății deschise completează lipsa informațiilor, fundamentează dezbaterile și deciziile de politici publice despre date deschise în România, fiind resurse utile atât celor care se află în poziții de decizie, cât și funcționarilor publici.

Proiectul Rapoartele societății deschise este finanțat prin granturile SEE 2009-2014, în cadrul Fondului ONG în România.

Pentru informații oficiale despre granturile SEE și norvegiene accesați www.eeagrants.org .

Detalii despre raportul Cultura deschisă: context european și național în România puteți obține de la Claudia Iordache, specialist comunicare, pe adresa claudia.iordache@fundatia.ro.

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19 Comments on Deschiderea datelor din domeniul cultural în România: oportunități și riscuri

  1. Navigand pe internetul in limba romana uite ca am
    gasit pe saitul dumeavoastra. Nu ma pot abtine sa nu zic ca sunt placut surprins de calitatea articolelor de pe aceasta pagina si va urez cat mai mult succes!

  2. Ai dreptate, MD5, o sa fac udatpe si-n articol. Le-am pus mai mult pentru ca sa se poata lumea asigura ca sunt datele complete, nu chiar ca masura de securitate. @Cristian Mda pentru comprimare. Recunosc ca mi-a fost lene sa le mai comprim serios Dar mormaitul e la liber, sa stii

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  17. it began with 22. It would appear that the cameras with the new sensors have a serial number which begins with 22 but 22 what.. My serial number is 22A0007XX and it would be interesting to know what serial numbers are on cameras right out of the box with new sensors.It would be invaluable information for persons looking to buy the new and improved X-S1..

  18. I've been watching YT on my TV for two years now. Nothing more complicated than hooking up a windows PC to my 48" plasma (which has a VGA-input). Having a PC hooked up to a TV that supports decent resolution (1024×768 is quite crisp on my TV) with a wireless keyboard and gyro mouse is the way to go – not just for streaming video but for any kind of web-based activity, or even playing PC games on your TV.

  19. Opa, essa proposta ainda esta valendo….eu nunca tinha sequer ouvido falar nessa linguagem, como velho gaga, usei, a nivel de curiosidade, seculos atras, cobol, fortran clipper…estava de olho em C,C++ mas me orientaram Java e buscando sobre, apareceu “Páitom’, como ja tenho uma cabecuda aqui…Meu objetivo, alem de brincar, eh desenvolver pequenos prg para area domestica, educacao, financas pessoais etc e tais.Gde Abraco

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